Wednesday, August 26, 2020

The Approach of the Law Lords Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Approach of the Law Lords - Essay Example At the point when it is difficult to decipher the enactment in a way that conforms to the ECHR, the residential court must think of a â€Å"Declaration of Incompatibility†. The purpose of flight into the enquiry regarding whether the Law Lords are currently made to administer human rights is the arrangement in the Human Rights Act 1998, Section 3 of which peruses as follows: â€Å"So far as conceivable to do as such, essential enactment and optional enactment ought to be perused and given impact in a manner which is perfect with Convention rights.† By Convention Rights, one alludes to the European Convention on Human Rights, to which the United Kingdom is bound. The essence of the discussion is this: does this arrangement presently fundamentally adjust the intensity of Judges, with the end goal that they may now adequately ‘legislate’ human rights through translation of demonstrations of Parliament? Provided that this is true, is this change for better or i n negative ways? Spectators have noticed that â€Å"stocktaking as opposed to conclusive appraisal† (Bonner, et. al., 2003: 549) might be progressively reasonable, given the developing picture. This paper first ganders at the foundation of Section 3 and how this Section has been created and solidified in statute. After which, this paper will likewise contend this is in reliable with the universal commitments of the United Kingdom. At long last, it will make the contention that the impacts of Section 3 is more advantageous than adverse, in that it builds up with more prominent sureness the detachment between the lawmaking body and the legal executive †a move that supplements the ongoing making of the Supreme Court as an investigative council over the Law Lords. The principle investigate, to decide in favor of oversimplicity, of the individuals who contend that the Section 3 of the Human Rights Act 1998 is too radical a modification of the intensity of judges is that human rights strategy in the nation will be in the possession of a gathering of individuals who were not chosen through popularity based races. Then again, the individuals who contend for the Human Rights Act, and thus, the European Convention on Human Rights, express that the goals of human rights and equity request that Parliamentary demonstrations be continually checked and adjusted. In reality, the prerequisites of current administration make it important that the parts of government are not given liberated force and watchfulness. It's implied, for example, that contemplations of harmony and request must be weighed contrary to the holy standards of common freedoms and individual flexibilities. Legal development Jurisprudence has spoken lavishly on the most proficient method to continue with deciphering enactment in concordance with Article 3. In the first place, it is imperative to recognize the particular legal arrangement that is in repudiation with the rights under the Human Right s Act (see the instance of R v A (No. 2) [2002] 1 AC 45 ). After which, the Court must decide if there is a break of Convention rights (see the instance of Poplar Housing Association v Donaghue [2002] QB 48 para 5). The court is then accused of the obligation of recognizing potential implications implies inside the enactment. Jepson states that there are two head ways by which the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Modernism And Modernisation In Architecture And Culture Philosophy Essay

Innovation And Modernisation In Architecture And Culture Philosophy Essay Examine the different contending thoughts of Modernity, Modernism and Modernisation in engineering and culture in the compositions of Robert Venturi/Denise Scott Brown utilizing the works of Michel Foucault and Jã ¼rgen Habermas to help your conversation. Presentation To start this exposition worried about the issues of Modernity, Modernism and Modernisation, I think it is a need to initially characterize the term Modern, as it connects every one of the three terms. Current, as indicated by Jã ¼rgen Habermas, was first utilized in late fifth century so as to recognize the Christian present, from the agnostic and Roman past. He contends that Modern can be utilized at whatever point the attention to another period created in Europe through an adjustment in the relationship to old style artifact. For us individuals today, Habermas thinks present day starts with the Renaissance, anyway individuals viewed themselves as current in the period of Charlemagne in the twelfth century and in the Enlightenment. (Habermas, 1996). Through this Habermas depicts the term present day as one, which can be utilized broadly and has no complete timeframe, as the idea driving it depends on ones (or a periods) observation. Figure Habermas clarification of current is bolstered by Vincent Scully, as he clarifies that Le Corbusiers, a pioneer of Modern engineering, instructor was the Greek sanctuary (Figure 1), comprising of a detached body, white and free in the scene, its meticulousness clear in the sun. Le Corbusier during his initial polemics would have his structures similarly as the sanctuary, as time went on his design started to logically increasingly more join the Greek Temples sculptural and brave character. (Venturi, 1977) Scullys translation on crafted by Le Corbusier legitimately, as Corbusier made another immediate relationship with the old style vestige of Greek Temples. Michel Foucault, as indicated by Barry Smart, takes a marginally alternate point of view to Habermas and Scullys understandings of the term present day, he deciphers current as a placeholder when an increasingly positive depiction isn't known. He proceeds to clarify that the advanced (or present) can't perceive itself as a period and that on the off chance that you can layout the attributes that make up a period is to as of now be past it and has gotten the past. (Shrewd, 1994). Foucault an intriguing understanding into the cutting edge, as just a title providing for that which is unclassifiable , the present, and that once you can characterize a timespan then it is not, at this point current and is the past. Innovation 1.1 Habermas contends that Modernity is an articulation that speaks to the awareness of a time that relates back to the past of traditional vestige all together comprehend itself as the development from the old to the new. What Habermas called the Unfinished Project focuses on a recognizable reconnection of present day culture with an ordinary circle of the hypothesis creation process, which is reliant on living legacy. Be that as it may, the point of advancement must be accomplished if the procedure of social modernisation can be changed into other non-entrepreneur headings, if the condition of the present world is equipped for creating establishments of its own particular manner right now pulled back by oneself decision framework elements of the monetary and regulatory frameworks. (Habermas, 1994) Venturi clarifies that Louis Khans or conventional present day engineers want for straightforwardness, is good, when it is made legitimate through internal intricacy. He goes to make reference to that the Doric Temples (Figure 2) straightforwardness to the eye is accomplished through celebrated nuances and exactness of its twisted geometry and the inconsistencies and strains inborn in its request, so it accomplishes clear effortlessness through genuine multifaceted nature. (Venturi, 1977). Through this Venturis point interfaces legitimately to Habermas thought of innovation, as he is relating the new Modern design want for straightforwardness to the effortlessness accomplished in the old engineering of the Doric Temple, subsequently featuring a progress from the old to new. Figure Michel Foucault adopts an alternate strategy from Habermas as he means Modernity as something which is described by a mix of intensity/information relations around the subject of life, an actual existence that is presently conceivable to ace through science. He proceeds to contend that the human races issue doesn't just comprise of a dread of devastation through synthetic or nuclear contamination, creature species termination or exhaustion of characteristic assets; the possibility that any vindictive force could assume control over advancements for malicious reasons for existing, is just a bogus dream to conceal a certified mystical tension that compares with the dominance of life. Through this Foucault expresses that this dominance of life, through science, changes the living, squashing it. Instead of transforming it into an information base whereupon could bolster us, in this way making the living being increasingly counterfeit. (Jose, 1998) Habermas produces a meaning of Modernity, which takes an a greater amount of social/conservative point of view, with his connection between social modernization and private enterprise and between the universes foundations and self-ruling financial and managerial frameworks. Then again Foucault adopts a strategy where he tends to how significant the logical part of advancement is and how it has influenced out point of view all in all. Figure As per Habermas, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Figure 3) was the principal logician to build up an away from of innovation. With the logicians that preceded him, Hegel found the center of innovation in the standard of subjectivity, which had recently been examined by Kant, who considered subjectivity to be the establishment of science, ethical quality and craftsmanship fields. Hegel contended that since advancement depended on subjectivity and the intensity of basic reflection, just philosophical explanation could accomplish the sought after compromise and conquer the uncertainty of present day subjectivity. This translation lead to the verbalization of Hegels thought of supreme soul, which is simply the devouring movement revelation, the genuinely self-gainful self-connection, mediating subjectivity and objectivity, nature and soul, finitude and unendingness. (Habermas, 1996, Pg. 6) Advancement and the Enlightenment David Harvey depicts Enlightenment thought as that which grasped the possibility of movement and effectively needed that break with history and convention which advancement receives. It was a non-strict development that looked for the evacuation of lack of clarity and holiness of information and social association so as to liberate people from their chains. (Harvey, 1989). The venture of advancement, as alluded to by Habermas, came into center during eighteenth century. This built up a scholarly exertion by Enlightenment masterminds to progress in target science, all inclusive morals and law, and self-governing craftsmanship as per their internal rationale. The thought behind this was to may utilization of the information picked up by numerous individuals working uninhibitedly and inventively in quest for human liberation and the enhancement of every day life. Harvey means Enlightenment thought as a manner of thinking which endeavors to expel the disquiet about seeking after information and social association with the goal that we can evacuate the chains in our brains, which keeps us from increasing more information. This connections into Habermas, where he addresses a quality of Enlightenment thinking, which is to progress and advance day by day life through the addition of more information. As per Habermas, through contradicting the traditional and the sentimental to one another, innovation wished to make its own past in an admired vision of the Middle Ages. During the nineteenth century the Romanticism created a radicalized acknowledgment of innovation that disconnected itself from all past recorded associations and comprehended itself exclusively in theoretical resistance to custom and history in general. (Habermas, 1996) I don't concur with this announcement as Habermas negates himself as he recently meant innovation as an articulation that speaks to the awareness of a period that alludes back to the past of traditional artifact correctly so as to appreciate itself as the consequence of a progress from the old to the new. (Habermas,1996, Pg. 39) Regarding this thought, it would outlandish for a kind of advancement to build up that not have recorded associations and uniquely restricted custom and history totally. Innovation as a cutting edge The attitude of stylish innovation started to shape with Charles Pierre Baudelaire and with his hypothesis of workmanship, which had been impacted by Edgar Allan Poe. This unfurled in the cutting edge imaginative developments and afterward accomplished its top with oddity and the Dadaists of the Cafã © Voltaire. This mindset is described by a lot of mentalities, which conformed to another changed cognizance of time, which communicates in the spatial analogy of the cutting edge. This cutting edge investigates the obscure, in this manner presenting itself to the danger of abrupt and stunning experiences, vanquishing an unsure future and must discover a way for itself in beforehand obscure areas. (Habermas, 1996) Innovation Modernisation End Absolute Word Count:

Monday, August 17, 2020


Robotics Once largely the province of science fiction, roboticss already permeate our daily lives. We may not realize it, as science fiction novels, television, and film have shaped our expectations of the appearance and function of robots. And those popular images of robots â€" machines like Wall-E, C-3P0, or the Terminator, do not yet exist. We do not live in a society where robots are as common in every household as silverware. However, not only are we headed there, already, robots of astounding functionality are in use around the world. Moreover, many corporations are racing to not only develop robots that meet our preconceived notions of what a robot should be, but also make them as ubiquitous as cellphones. Governments are striving to enhance their viability as weapons. In addition, academics are vigorously searching for singularity â€" the point at which robot intelligence will outstrip human intelligence. © | Willyam BradberryFueling all of this activity is the exciting field of robotics, which promises â€" or threatens â€" to transform our world in just a few short decades. In this article, we will look at, 1) definition of robotics, 2) history of robotics technology, 3) trends in robotics research, 3) semi-autonomous vs. autonomous robots, 4) robotics in industry and government, 5)  consumer robotics, 6) the future development of robotics technology, 7) the benefits of robotics technology, and 8) the ethical implications of robotics.DEFINITION OF ROBOTICSRobotics is the cross-disciplinary study of the design, development, and deployment of robots, which involves electronics, engineering, computer science, bioengineering, physics, philosophy, and psychology. We then must define robots, which is no easy task. In 1979, the Robot Institute of America defined robots as:A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or sp ecialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.Is a car then a robot? The Oxford Dictionary defines a robot as:“A machine capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically, especially one programmable by a computer.”The first part is good, but the second part is clearly reflective of our popular conception of robots, and is contradicted by new biological tissue-based bio-robots, among other new developments. As the technology evolves, so too must the definition. For our purposes, we will define robots using the first part of the Oxford Dictionary definition, which is inclusive of not only new developments in robotics technology, but also the historical development of robots and robotics.A HISTORY OF ROBOTICS TECHNOLOGYScience historians generally credit the first robot to Archytas, an ancient Greek scholar and contemporary of Plato, who, in 350 BC, developed an artificial flying device whose form mimicked a bird’ s form and whose propulsion was powered by steam. Approximately 100 years later, the Greek inventor Ctesibus created automated clocks powered by water. These early inventions paved the way for further exploration of automated machines, with further advancements throughout the centuries leading to famed inventor Leonardo DaVinci’s robot â€" an armored knight in 1495; the Digesting Duck (robot) of French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson in 1739; and Swiss inventor Pierre Jacquet Droz’s animated dolls, built in the late 18th century. Most of the robots of the time were built to amuse and entertain European royalty; Droz’s dolls are notable for being programmable and a precursor to the modern computer.In 1822, Charles Babbage, an English scholar, invented (but never built) what is considered the first computer: a machine based on levers and gears, rather than the then-recently created electric circuit (by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800). As computers are key to most robots in service today, as well as major fields of robotics study, it is worth noting here. Further advancements in mathematics, physics, mechanics, and electrical engineering over the next century and a half years led to the development of remote controlled robots. The term robot itself (from Czech writer Karel Capek’s play R.U.R. or Rossum’s Universal Robots) was popularized by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov, whose fiction has been influential on robo-ethics, and the term “artificial intelligence.”The 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s saw the rise of automated machines introduced for commercial manufacturing purposes as well as significant scientific explorations in artificial intelligence and biomechanics. However, beginning in the 1980s and early 1990s, robotics began to seep outside of the lab and into the hands of consumers, notably through LEGO robotics kits, which were simultaneously introduced to retail stores and classrooms. With the explosion of the Internet in the la te 1990s and the early 2000s, came a similar frenzied commercial drive to adapt robotics technologies, such as sensing, thinking, and acting, into electronically powered consumer products, thus blurring the line between what we think of as robots and actual robots. However, the Internet, and more specifically, the advent of the Digital or Information Age, also accelerated work on the development of service robots, military robots, research robots, and other machines strictly defined as robots.TRENDS IN ROBOTICS RESEARCHBecause robotics involves so many disciplines, approaches, and goals, there are dozens of different branches of robotics. They include, but are not limited to:Aerial robotics: the development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, commonly known as drones);Artificial intelligence: the development of self-thinking machines;Bio-robotics: the design of robots that emulate biological beings;Robot learning: the design and refinement of the way robot programming processes infor mation; andKinematics: the study of motion, in this case applied to robots.Fundamentally, some of the major trends in robotics research today that encompass most of robotics’ diverse branches include:Standardization: the creation of a common robot operating system;Miniaturization: which reflects advances in nanotechnology and medical applications for robots;Parallel processing: the development of robotics CPUs that mimic the human brain;Biological modeling: modeling robotic motion on human and animal motion; andIncreasing robotic autonomy.How Robots Will Change The World Documentary SEMI-AUTONOMOUS VS. AUTONOMOUS ROBOTSRobots are either semi-autonomous or autonomous. Semi-autonomous robots are those that are controlled manually by a human, or by their programming. They may be able to learn but that learning has a finite ceiling. Autonomous robots, in contrast, are those that can think, act, and adapt to sensory input. Completely autonomous robots are the ultimate goal of the arti ficial intelligence branch of robotics. However, while academics make strides towards that end, others work to refine the many semi-autonomous robots active today. Usually, these are found in industry and government, are known as service robots, and are designed to perform a specific function.ROBOTICS IN INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENTManufacturingService robots have been utilized in industrial manufacturing processes to automate various phases of production since the 1960s. Most often, these robots are purely functional in design. One of the first industrial robots was an “arm,” created by George Devol in 1961, and used to manufacture auto parts at General Motors. Today, industrial robots have replaced millions of farmers, manufacturers, cargo loaders, and other labor-intensive occupations. Other jobs have arisen in new fields, but another wave of job displacement may arise with the advances in, and increased deployment of, semi-autonomous robots. The ability of service robots to learn and process complex information could lead to the deployment of robots in fields such as precision manufacturing, trucking, accounting, and even writing.MedicineRecent advances in robotics have been fueled in part by medical research and efforts by the medical community to improve the efficiency of healthcare delivery. Robots like Aethon TUG and the Vasteras Giraffe have been deployed in hospitals to deliver medicine and/or medical equipment throughout hospitals, and to enhance the delivery of medicine to homebound patients, respectively. Other examples include the Bestic, a robotic arm that helps delivery food to patients, and the Cosmobot, a robot design to enhance therapy techniques administered to developmentally disabled children.Robots have also been used increasingly in operations. Robots, such as the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System, have been in use since the late 1990s. Unmanned robotic surgeries have been available to patients since 2006. The burgeoning field of nano-medicin e is full of enthusiastic academic researchers devoted to deliver medicine in the body through nano-bots, which would act similar to antibodies. Unlike most robots, these would be made from biological tissue, rather than metal or polymers.Robotics technologies have also been employed in exoskeletons, to great effect. The firm ReWalk created an exoskeleton that, using sensing technologies, allows paraplegics to walk. It has been approved by the FDA for use, and while it currently costs approximately $70,000, advancements in these technologies as well as computer learning and processing power, may bring the price down in the coming years.MilitaryExoskeletons are not solely the province of medical research. Militaries, especially the U.S. military, have spent a considerable amount of time and money developing exoskeletons for infantry combat use. Such devices would allow soldiers to carry supplies and weapons effortlessly; some might even be capable of flight! They would also allow sol diers a full-range of motion, and be able to operate for long periods without charging. Currently, limitations include cost (as these would need to be produced in bulk to account for hundreds of thousands of soldiers), power limitations, and mobility issues.However, robots themselves have already been introduced on the battlefield. The U.S. Air Force uses aerial drones for surgical military strikes, and for reconnaissance. Other models of robots are used for ground-level reconnaissance, explosive device assessment and disposal, and equipment transportation. They range in size and form. For example, handheld “throwbots” can be pitched through a window or doorway and use their built-in recording equipment for surveillance. Security robotic systems, like the Packbot or TALON are often equipped with tires or treads to travel to a particular destination and perform a specified task. These models are small enough to be transported in a soldier’s backpack. By contrast, robots like th e ACER resemble a bulldozer and are designed for bomb disposal, transportation of weapons, and clearing roadway obstacles.In 2003, the U.S. Army initially announced a $130 billion program called Future Combat Systems that aimed to deploy armed robots in its military forces. However, the program was canceled in 2009 and its more promising initiatives swept into a general modernization program for brigade combat teams. Currently, the U.S., Britain, Israel, South Korea, and China use semi-autonomous robots in military combat.CONSUMER ROBOTICSOf course, not all robotics applications are used for such serious purposes. Consumer robots have been available as toys, pets, and household implements since the 1980s.FunctionsTo-date, consumer robots have generally fallen into one of four categories: toys, pets, social robots, and household implements. Starting with LEGO robotics kits, electronics and toy companies have raced each other to introduce viable robotic toys for kids. And beyond those kits, robot toys have proliferated, from the Tomy Verbot and Playskool Alphie of the 1980s to the Furbys and Sony AIBOs of the 1990s to the RoboSapiens and ASIMOs of today.Many robot toys come in the form of pets. Sony’s AIBO, a robotic toy that can learn and entertain, is a good example, appealing to more than just the market of robot enthusiasts. Indeed, pet robots are a good example of social robots â€" robots designed to provide people with companionship. These can range from the AIBO to dining companion robots such as the JIBO to adult entertainment robots, such as Roxxxy. Other robots, such as the Roomba, provide common household functions, such as vacuum cleaning.Roomba FeaturesThe features of most consumer robots parallel advances in the broader field of robotics. They are electro-mechanical (rather than biological) machines, and usually feature the latest in robot learning, sensing and motion technologies, though these are dependent on their primary function and price po int. Many can be integrated with your other electronics, such as your iPhone.CostsRobots available on the consumer market can retail for as little as $20.00 to as much as $10,000 or more. Generally, the more features the robot has, the more expensive it is. As robotic technologies become more inexpensive to produce, the price point will likely drop, as many electronics corporations would love to ensure the average household of the next ten years features at least one robot.Worlds 10 Most Amazing Robots FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF ROBOTICS TECHNOLOGYWidespread adoptionMuch like popular fiction, scientists and futurists alike do predict that in the next few decades, robots will be in every household. However, few predict the proliferation of humanoid robots. Robotics technologies will instead be propagated throughout all types of electronic devices. This is already occurring. Self-driving cars and smart cities are prime examples. In addition, given that defense departments and healthcare co mpanies are driving investment in robotics technology RD to ensure productivity gains in the military and medicine, they are committed to adopting new technologies that meet safety, productivity, and cost standards.Increased functionalityAdvances in motion and sensing technologies will continue to improve the precision of robot motion, allowing robots to perform tasks once exclusively the domain of humans, as well as some tasks beyond our capabilities. Open sourcing robotics software development will likely yield answers to some tough problems facing roboticists now, but an eventual standardization of operating systems will likely yield the biggest breakthroughs.Integration with artificial intelligence researchEvery new breakthrough in robot learning brings us closer and closer to singularity. At some point in the not too distance future (Noted futurist, inventor and machine learning expert at Google, Ray Kurzweil, predicts by 2029) we will have the ability to develop fully autonomo us robots, which will bring new opportunities and challenges.NanotechnologyAdvances in nanotechnology will most notably have beneficial implications for healthcare, in terms of medicine delivery, healthcare monitoring, medical devices, and surgeries. However, nanotechnology has frightening implications for modern warfare and could, if weaponized, be as destructive as nuclear weapons. Beyond use in some consumer goods manufacturing, there is not much of a consumer market for nano-bots. Nevertheless, there soon might be.BENEFITS OF ROBOTICSAs robotics advances, the benefits of robot utilization grow exponentially. Service robots in industry have lowered production costs and created safer working environments. Military usage of robots has reduced casualties and collateral damage. Robots have also improved healthcare delivery and the advancement, and will likely continue to do so. Moreover, the proliferation of consumer robots may help us, not only in our daily lives, but also understan d ourselves better.ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICSRobotics presents us several potential ethical dilemmas, many of which have played out where robotics started â€" in popular fiction. Perhaps the most common ethical question is, if/when we, one day, create artificial intelligence, what is the role of the robot in our society? Even our current level of robotics technology has created a number of issues that we are already wrestling with, including, but not limited to:Privacy issues related to prosthetic devices and data chip implants, and the introduction of robots into policing;Ethical issues related to physical enhancements through robotics technology; the open sourcing of robotic design; the design of robots that can “breed” (create other robots); and the usage of robots in military operations; andPsychological, moral, and philosophical issues related to human interaction with service robots â€" industrial and personal.Introduction to Robotics[slideshare id=1025309doc=introdu ction-to-robotics-1234545871742906-2w=640h=330]

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Glow in the Dark Crystal Geode

Its very easy to make a glow in the dark crystal geode. The rock is a natural mineral (eggshell). You can use one of several common household chemicals to grow the crystals. The glow comes from paint, which you can get from a craft store. Glow in the Dark Geode Materials eggsglow in the dark paint (I used GlowAwayâ„ ¢ washable glowing paint)very hot water (I used my coffee maker) borax, alum, Epsom salts, sugar, salt, or use another crystal recipe food coloring (optional -- I used neon green coloring) Prepare the Glowing Geode There are two ways to crack your eggs. You can carefully crack the top of the egg by tapping it on a counter top. This will give you a deep geode with a smaller opening. Alternatively, you can crack the equator of the egg or carefully cut it with a knife. This will give you a geode you can open and put back together.Dump the egg or make scrambled eggs or whatever.Rinse out the inside of the eggshell with water. Peel away the interior membrane so you are left with only the shell.Allow the egg to air dry or carefully blot it dry with a paper towel or napkin.Use a paintbrush, swab, or your fingers to coat the inside of the eggshell with glowing paint.Set the painted egg aside while you mix the crystal-growing solution. Make the Crystal Solution Pour hot water into a cup.Stir borax or other crystal salt into the water until it stops dissolving and you see some solid at the bottom of the cup.Add food coloring, if desired. Food coloring does not get incorporated into all crystals (e.g., borax crystals will be clear), but it will stain the egg shell behind the crystals, giving the geode some color. Grow the Glowing Crystals Support the shell so that it wont tip over. I made a little nest for mine in a crumpled napkin that I set inside a cereal bowl.Pour the crystal solution into the shell so that it is as full as possible. Dont pour the undissolved solid into the eggshell, just the saturated liquid.Set the shell somewhere where it wont get knocked over. Allow crystals to grow for several hours (overnight is shown) or as long as you like.When you are satisfied with the crystal growth, pour out the solution and allow the geode to dry.Phosphorescent paint is activated by exposing it to bright light. Black light (ultraviolet) produces a very bright glow, also. The duration of the glow depends on the paint you use. My geode glows for about a minute before it needs to be recharged. Some paints will produce geodes that glow for a few seconds. Other paints may glow for many minutes.Store your geode in a dry location, protected from dust.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Extent at Which Peer Group Affect Students Academic...

The Extent to which Peer Groups Affect Academic Performance Have you ever wondered about the extent to which peer groups affect academic performance? Make no mistake; a peer group can impact your childs academic performance significantly. However, to say that ones peer group is the most influential factor in academic performance isnt true either. Lets take a look at just how influential ones peer group is. [pic] The Extent to Which Peer Groups Affect Academic Performance To answer the question, to what extent do peer groups affect academic performance, in quantifiable terms is actually quite difficult. There are numerous variables to consider, however, here are a few statistics: [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]Ads by Google Distance†¦show more content†¦Parental Involvement Across the board, when taken into account with other factors including ethnicity, socio-economic factors, and even education of parents--parental involvement is the single most influential factor in academic success. Teens who have parents who are involved in their lives and generally know whats going on at school are more likely to attend four-year colleges. Positive Role Models Positive adult role models help solidify a students path on the road to academic achievement. Be it a mentor, or someone in the family, a role model can make a big difference. Setting high expectations for a student can make that student think twice before engaging in risky behavior that might disappoint his mentor. Education as a Value Students who believed that education was a means to pursue something higher and/or believed that education was valuable tend to do better in school. One may well argue that this attitude again stems from parents, although teachers can play a significant role as well. How Influential Are Peer Groups? It would seem that while peer groups are fairly influential,Show MoreRelatedThe Extent at Which Peer Group Affect Students Academic Performance3132 Words   |  13 PagesTHE EFFECT OF PEER PRESSURE IN CAREER CHOICE OF THE 4Th YEAR STUDENTS OF CALOOCAN HIGH SCHOOL A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty Members of the UNIVERSITY OF CALOOCAN CITY General San Miguel Street, Sangandaan, Caloocan City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PSYCHOLOGY By: Danna Reyes Mharfel M. Milanes September 23, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Approval Sheet†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MoreThe Model Minority Myth Of Asian Americans846 Words   |  4 PagesThe Model Minority Myth The model minority stereotype suggests that Asian Americans as a group are achieving a higher level of academic, economic, and social success than the overall American population (Hartlep, 2013; Tran Birman, 2010). This stereotype is very much engrained in the American culture today; however, such acceptance does not reflect the whole truth. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 52.4% of Asian Americans over the age of 25 have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared toRead MoreGibb and Dyches Workbook Summary1280 Words   |  6 Pagescreated for students who have been classified with a disability and are between the ages of 3 and 21. An Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a written statement of the educational program designed to meet a child’s individual educational needs. Every child who receives special education services must have an IEP. An individualized education program has the goal of setting reasonable improvement learning goals for a child for one year including the role the school will assist the student to achieveRead MoreBetween The Various Financial Data And Eleventh Grade Students1604 Words   |  7 Pagesvarious financial data and eleventh grade students achievement. A comparison of four groups of school districts designated by ad valorem wealth and SES also was conducted to identify difference in student achievement. 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About 20% of adults withRead MoreAlcohol And Drugs And Their Effects On First Year Students1544 Words   |  7 PagesAlcohol and Drugs and their Effects on First-Year Students Alcohol has been a part of human society for millennia. It can be found in churches, gas stations, supermarkets, and nearly everywhere else. Drugs are becoming more ubiquitous as well, with the legalization of cannabis now active in some form in 25 states (Maciag â€Å"State†). However, no single place is more saturated with alcohol and drugs than the college campus. Despite the troves of research that have been done to give evidence that theyRead MoreExamining the Social Interactions of the Inclusion Classroom: A Grounded Theory1424 Words   |  6 Pagesfocuses in the field of special education for the past two decades. Students with disabilities are being integrated in the general education classrooms at a steady pace. 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A study done by the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) on 1st year students found that for theRead MorePsychosocial Factors as Determinants of Students’ Achievement in Senior Secondary School Mathematics12067 Words   |  49 PagesDETERMINANTS OF STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BY Adekoya Emmanuel Olusegun Abstract This study investigated the influence of psychosocial factors on the achievement secondary school students in mathematics. The variables that were addressed include test anxiety, locus of control, self concept, motivation, study habit and peer influence. The population for the study included all Senior Secondary School 2 (SSS 2) students in Ogun State. Two hundred (200) SS 2 students were

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Influences of Mlk’s I Have a Dream Speech Free Essays

Racial segregation along with social equality has been of the many issues in the United States since the nation was formed. Unlike most other issues in this country, segregation was dealt with to an extent but eventually came to a complete halt. Blacks were still being treated unequally in the United States, forced to abide by unreasonable rules or would face cruel punishment. We will write a custom essay sample on Influences of Mlk’s I Have a Dream Speech or any similar topic only for you Order Now These rules were present in nearly every public facility, sidewalk, buses, and even bathrooms. Although every person of the white race did not agree with the use of segregation, no one had the courage to stand up and convince the people of the United States that the way they are treating the African Americans was wrong. The Negroes of this time felt as if there was not any hope of being completely free until a brave and intelligent man stood up in front of thousands of people on August 28, 1963 in Washington D. C. Martin Luther King Jr. pens the eyes of many Americans with his words of wisdom in his I Have a Dream speech, explaining how the Negroes of America are being treated and what is about to happen to give the Negroes the freedom they have been promised. His persuasion and direct demand of their freedom will make the people of the United States change their ways or severe consequences will come. One hundred years before King addressed his I have a dream speech, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, meant to gradually free all slaves of the terri tories who were still in rebellion against the Union. Along with the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, the Emancipation Proclamation was written to allow all people of the United States to be free. King mentions in the first few paragraphs of his speech that the Declaration of Independence was a â€Å"promissory note† to every American guaranteeing their â€Å"unalienable rights† of â€Å"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. † Explaining that the government’s promise still has not been fulfilled, proven by the African Americans’ lack of complete freedom. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned†, â€Å"America has given the Negro people a bad check. † The Negroes of America were still living through the hardships of segregation and discrimination, which were promised, in several federal documents, abolishment over one hundred years before. King tells the country that he demands the rights of freedom and until all of the Negroes of the United States receive their rights they deserve, they will never give up. He explains that the reason that they do not have freedom is because the government and the people of the United States have convinced the African American population that they will eventually receive their rights, without any intentions of taking action to do so. If they do not receive their rights soon, he promised that there would be a revolution until all people of the United States are free. King automatically draws respect by saying â€Å"The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. † Honoring the people of the white race who were attending the speech and expressing that every individuals’ future depends on their freedom. He also receives respect by telling the people not to revolt through violence while trying to obtain their rights of freedom, seeking revenge would only hurt our population and the nation, as a whole. Being aggressive could endanger the possibility of ever receiving complete freedom for the Negro population. In the speech, King never talked down on the white Americans for their acts. Instead, he explains what the white race had done to require him to stand in front of America that day. He also expressed how he looked forward to the â€Å"brotherhood† and friendship with every white American in the near future, making the people realize he does not want any superiority over the white race, only to be considered equal as them. At this point in the speech, he begins to explain how much he would appreciate life as a free American and how he will enjoy the right to do as he may wish. To be able to work to, not only, make him successful but to create a more successful nation as a whole. â€Å"Nine sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. King brings about persuasion towards every race with this point in the speech. Meaning that it will be an end to segregation, but more importantly a beginning to a powerful and successful nation. The black population being free will bring greater technologies, work ethics, and complete unionization. With the country in complete unity it automatically causes it to be stronger as a whole. His persuasion to the black population c omes greatly towards the end of the speech. He tells everyone that the â€Å"situation can and will be changed. By being so straightforward and ensuring, it gives confidence and motivation to the people who are trying to fix this situation to stand up for themselves and demand what they deserve. This statement also tells the people who are treating the Negroes badly that they have no other choice but to give the blacks their guaranteed rights or there will be an uncontrollable and never ending revolution. The never-ending revolution could jeopardize the function of the country and cause social and economic chaos throughout. King concludes his speech with the famous I have a dream phrases and songs. In the phrases he tells about how peaceful and enjoyable complete freedom will be and how he dreams that one day soon he will see interracial friendships of brotherhood between children and adults of this country. Being able to work together, pray together, struggle together, go to jail together, and stand up for freedom together will bring many great effects on the nation and the people. Being â€Å"free at last† will make the world a better place and will gradually make this country the strongest in the world economically and socially. Martin Luther King Jr. ’s speech was so convincing because of his straightforwardness about what will be done to receive the rights that the African Americans were promised. Although most of the white race had knowledge of how they were treating the blacks, King opened their eyes by making them realize that they Constitutionally deserve the same rights as the white population. King was respectful throughout the speech, which most likely helped the people understand and accept the reason for his speech. Although African Americans still did not receive their rights immediately after this speech, the speech had an incredible impact on the future of the African Americans and the future of this nation. Great risks came with King’s speech but he was willing to take those risks to create a better future for the lives of many Americans. How to cite Influences of Mlk’s I Have a Dream Speech, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Australian Corporations Law

Question: Write a brief explanation about why the directors duty to prevent insolvent trading exists and the circumstances and consequences of the veil of incorporation being lifted for insolvent trading.(Do not just repeat the words of the relevant sections in the Corporations Act).From what you know of OHS Solutions predicament, DISCUSS whether any of the directors may be about to breach or have already breached the duty to prevent insolvent trading. (In order to do this you will need to compare what is happening in OHS Solutions case with other precedent cases and refer to the relevant sections in the Corporations Act.) What will you advise Ying? Answer: In modern times, it is required that the directors should be made more responsible for the acts of the companies controlled by them. For example in case a company is allowed by its directors to incur a debt while it is suspected or any other reasonable person under similar circumstances would have suspected it to be insolvent, the Corporations Act, 2001 (Cth) provides in its section 588 that in such a case the director may have to compensate the company and ultimately the creditor of the company on orders of the court in case of the loss of the creditors. The reason is that in such a case it is considered that it was the fault of the director that the company was able to incur a debt when it was not in a position to repay the debt and at the same time, it was the responsibility of the directors of the company to prevent it from incurring the debt. In this way, the applicable provisions of Corporations Act provide that the directors should not be allowed to incur debts recklessly which cannot be repaid by the company later on and in this way, avoid their personal liability by hiding behind the corporate veil.These provisions can be applied if the debts have been incurred intentionally and at the same time if the director has been negligent in its duty to keep aware of company's financial position at the time of incurring the debt and when the director did not act to stop the company. It is the responsibility of the directors of the company to prevent it from incurring a debt when the company is insolvent or reasonable grounds are there to suspect that it may not be insolvent at the time of incurring the debt. In this way, this duty of the directors is called duty to prevent insolvent trading. This duty has also been incorporated in the Corporations Act and can be found in section 588G in this regard, it needs to be noted that this duty applies to all the directors including any alternative director that has been appointed by the duly appointed director of the company as well as the persons acting as company's directors. At the same time, duty to prevent insolvent trading is also applicable in case of a person who may not be validly or formally appointed as its director but when such person has been acting as company's director. In the same way, duty to prevent insolvent trading is also applicable in case of the persons generally from whom the directors of the com pany take instructions.At the same time, shadow directors and de facto directors are also considered as the directors of the company according to the definition of director as mentioned in section 9 of the Act.At the same time, the earlier defense of silent directors has also been removed now that is in accordance with the current trend. The courts have also verified on several occasions that there are some responsibilities related with the position of director. These responsibilities include the duty of the directors to keep an eye on the financial position of the company as well as on its solvency.Similarly directors should also keep an eye on the debts that are being incurred by the company. These responsibilities cannot be ignored by the directors of companies and if a director ignores these responses this, such a director can be held liable by the court.A number of factors are present which have to be established in case of clean related with insolvent trading. Therefore, while dealing with a claim of insolvent trading, there are certain factors that need to be decided. These include:- Company's solvency at the time when the debt was incurred. The positive duty present and part of its directors and it also needs to be seen in the directors have fulfilled these duties. If reasonable grounds are present due to which the directors should have suspected if the company was solvent or not at the relevant time. The director's liability in case of the relevant debt as well as the statutory defenses that may be used by the directors. The directors of the company have not satisfied the duty to prevent insolvent trading, if these characters have not been successful in stopping the corporation from taking the loan when the directors knew of the reasonable grounds to believe they should have suspected that the company may not solvent at the relevant time or may become insolvent very soon.[8] In such a case, the assessment that needs to be applied is that of a reasonable person.[9] Therefore, it needs to be seen if any other reasonable person under similar circumstances would have come to know regarding the grounds related with the solvency of the company.[10]The legal position in this regard is that the duty of preventing insolvent trading can be breached if a person is acting as the director; the corporation is insolvent or may become so after taking the loan; and the director should have suspected the solvency of the company at such a time. This duty is not only applicable in case of the persons who have been appoi nted formerly but also to the persons who are acting as the director of the company.[11] As a result it is important for the directors remain unaware of the financial position of their corporation and also regarding the cash flow requirements of the company regularly. At the same time, it is also important that the directors should ensure that the company maintains proper books and accounts. The directors should monitor them actively and at the same time, they should also take all reasonable steps that are necessary for keeping an eye on company's financial position. The financial position of the company should be under the consideration of the directors at all times so that the directors of the company become aware of any signs immediately related with the inability of the company to pay its debts.[12] A company can be said to be insolvent if such a company cannot pay its debts when they are due for payment. But the ability of the Company to pay its debt needs to be decided by considering the overall circumstances. Generally the cash flow test is employed for the purpose of evaluating a company's solvency. According to the cash flow test, a realistic evaluation is made of the current as well as the future cash flow. At the same time, it is also seen in case of this test if the cash flow of the company will be enough to pay present as well as the future liabilities. Similarly it also evaluates the general financial position as well as some other important commercial factors in order to decide the solvency of the company. The director of a company can be held liable in case of a claim related with insolvent trading. In the present case, OHS Solutions Pty has been established by Des, Emma and Satish as they introduced in the business various skills and abilities. While Emma has done graduation in accounting, the expertise of Des lies in occupational health and safety. At the same time, an IT degree is possessed by Satish. However after operating for six months, problems start to surface within the company. The accountant that has been hired by Emma failed to give the necessary information. At the same time, in such a case another employee could also been hired so that the financial records of OHS Solutions could have been maintained properly. In this regard, it needs to be noted that it is the duty of a director to act in a timely manner after an advice has been received by the director in this regard and at the same time, the director is also required to evaluate the fairness of the assumption which a re provided the basis for such advice.[13] When the directors of the company received an advice according to which, even if the company may not be insolvent at that time, it may become so as a result of the financial problems present before the company, it is the duty of the directors to take timely action. Such an action may include dealing with the cause that has resulted in the temporary lack of cash flow (Standard Chartered Bank of Australia Ltd v Antico, 1995). At the same time, if reasonable grounds are present for the directors of the company according to which, it is not likely that the company's financial position will improve in future or may deteriorate further, immediate steps should be taken by the directors and if they fail to do so, it may result in the breach of duty to stop insolvent trading by the company.In the same way, if the information is received by the directors according to which, the company may have become insolvent, immediate action is required by the di rectors. Such action may also include the taking of further advice from professionals like a lawyer or an accountant at the generally provide advice regarding the ways in which the financial problems of the corporation can be dealt with.[14] At the same time, by following certain principles, it is possible for the directors of companies to reduce the chances of a breach of their duties. Therefore it is important for the directors to remain aware of the financial position of the company. In the same way, it is also required that the solvency of the companies evaluated regularly by the directors. In case any concern has been identified by the directors related with the solvency of the company, it is important that immediate positive action should be taken by the director with a view to confirm the solvency of the company and at the same time, all the available options should be assessed and realistically by the director. A director is also required to take appropriate advice and then act on such advice that has been received by the director.[15]The law also provides in this regard that the director may rely upon the information given by a third party but it is required that such third party should be briefed in detail and at the same time, sufficient information should also be given to such third party by the directors so that the risk, if any, paced by the company can be properly evaluated by such party.[16] Therefore if a director knows about the financial problems of the company or reasonable grounds are present before such director on the basis of which it can be said that the corporation may not be in the position to repay its debts, it is necessary that the director takes all reasonable steps with a view to prevent the company from taking the loan. It is also required that just as taken by the director should be clear and unequivocal. For example, a director may be required to persuade other directors in writing to prevent the company from taking the loan. In this regard, the director should take appropriate advice if other directors of the company decide to allow the company to take the loan.[17] While in the past, there are two defenses available to the directors according to which, if the debt has not been incurred actively by the director or if it is not likely that action will be taken against the director by the creditors, are not available to the directors of corporations now. The directors may have to face claims of compensation from the liquidator and at the same time, civil or criminal action may also be taken against them.[18] In this regard it needs to be noted that the statutory defenses that are available to the directors of companies can be used only in case of legitimate circumstances[19]. As a result, it is important that these responsibilities should be taken seriously by the directors otherwise they may have to face liability for the breach of their duties.For example in the present case, the managing director of the company, Des has a duty to prevent the company from signing a new contract if the company is facing serious financial problems. At the same tim e, the other directors of the company have also not been able to fulfill their duty which requires them to prevent OHS Solutions from trading while being insolvent. It is also required that Satish and Ying, the other directors of the company also share this liability. The law provides in this regard that it is the duty of the silent directors also to keep an eye on the financial position of the corporation. In this case, it was important that all the directors of OHS Solution Pty Ltd should have kept an eye on the financial position of the company.At the same time, as the Finance Director of OHS Solutions, it was the duty of Emma and also the other directors of the company to prevent the company from trading while the company was insolvent. In the same way, Des was aware of the financial problems that are being faced by OHS Solutions but he had not taken any steps to deal with these problems or to prevent the company from indulging in insolvent trading. In the same way, in the prese nt case, Ying was also a director of OHS Solutions and therefore it was also the duty of Ying to remain aware of the financial position of the company and to prevent the company from indulging in insolvent trading if reasonable grounds were present to suspect that the company may not be solvent at that time. In this way, it can be said that in this case, all the directors of OHS Solutions Pty Ltd can be held liable for the breach of the duty to prevent insolvent trading.On the other hand, it is the duty of Ying as the director of OHS Solutions to prevent the company from indulging in insolvent trading. For this purpose, Ying can give a written notice to the other directors of the company, Des, Emma and Satish. In case the other directors of OHS Solutions decide that there will not stop the company from indulging in insolvent trading, Ying is required to take professional advice and stop the company from indulging in insolvent trading. References Cassidy J, (1997) Has the Sleeping Director Finally Been Laid to Rest? 25 Australian Business Law Review 102 Goldman D, (2005) Directors Beware! Creditor protection from insolvent trading 23 Company and Securities Law Journal 216 Goode R, (1998) Insolvent Trading Under English and Australian Law 16 Company and Securities Law Journal 170 Hargovan A, (2004) Geneva Finance and the Duty of Directors to Creditors: Imperfect obligation and critique 12 Insolvency Law Journal 134 Herzberg A, (1998) Why Are There So Few Insolvent Trading Cases? 6 Insolvency Law Journal 77 James P, Ramsay I and Siva P, (2004) Insolvent Trading An Empirical Study 12 Insolvency Law Journal 210 Law L, (1997) Business Judgment Rule in Australia: A reappraisal since the AWA case 15 Company and Securities Law Journal 174 Mannolini J, (1996) Creditors Interests in the Corporate Contract: A case for the reform 6 Australian Journal of Corporate Law 14 Mescher B, (1998) Company Directors Knowledge of the Insolvent Trading Provisions 6 Insolvency Law Journal 186 Mosley J, (1996) Insolvent Trading:What is a debt and when is one incurred? 4 Insolvency Law Journal 155 Sivehla J, (2006) Directors Fiduciary Duties 27 Australian Bar Review 192 Welsh M and Anderson H, (2006) Directors Personal Liability for Corporate Fault: An alternative model 26 Adelaide Law Review 29 Case Law: Clark v Perkins [2002] SASC 382 DCT v Clarke (2003) 57 NSWLR 113 Gye v McIntyre (1991) 171 CLR 609 Morley v Statewide Tobacco Services Ltd [1993] 1 VR 423 Tolcher v National Australia Bank Ltd [2003] NSWSC 207 [1] Cassidy J, (1997) Has the Sleeping Director Finally Been Laid to Rest? 25 Australian Business Law Review 102 [2] Clark v Perkins [2002] SASC 382 [3] Law L, (1997) Business Judgment Rule in Australia: A reappraisal since the AWA case 15 Company and Securities Law Journal 174 [4] James P, Ramsay I and Siva P, (2004) Insolvent Trading An Empirical Study 12 Insolvency Law Journal 210 [5] Goode R, (1998) Insolvent Trading Under English and Australian Law 16 Company and Securities Law Journal 170 [6] Mannolini J, (1996) Creditors Interests in the Corporate Contract: A case for the reform 6 Australian Journal of Corporate Law 14 [7] Goldman D, (2005) Directors Beware! Creditor protection from insolvent trading 23 Company and Securities Law Journal 216 [8] Mescher B, (1998) Company Directors Knowledge of the Insolvent Trading Provisions 6 Insolvency Law Journal 186 [9] Credit Corporation Australia Pty Ltd v Atkins, 1990 [10] Mosley J, (1996) Insolvent Trading:What is a debt and when is one incurred? 4 Insolvency Law Journal 155 [11] Morley v Statewide Tobacco Services Ltd, 1993 [12] Gye v McIntyre (1991) 171 CLR 609 [13] DCT v Clarke (2003) 57 NSWLR 113 [14] Welsh M and Anderson H, (2006) Directors Personal Liability for Corporate Fault: An alternative model 26 Adelaide Law Review 299 [15] Herzberg A, (1998) Why Are There So Few Insolvent Trading Cases? 6 Insolvency Law Journal 77 [16] Sivehla J, (2006) Directors Fiduciary Duties 27 Australian Bar Review 192 [17] Hargovan A, (2004) Geneva Finance and the Duty of Directors to Creditors: Imperfect obligation and critique 12 Insolvency Law Journal 134 [18] Goode R, (1998) Insolvent Trading Under English and Australian Law 16 Company and Securities Law Journal 170 [19] Tolcher v National Australia Bank Ltd [2003] NSWSC 207